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When REM sleep episodes were timed for their duration and subjects were awakened to make reports before major editing or forgetting of their dreams could take place, subjects accurately reported the length of time they had been dreaming in an REM sleep state.
Some researchers have speculated that " time dilation " effects only seem to be taking place upon reflection and do not truly occur within dreams.
REM sleep episodes and the dreams that accompany them lengthen progressively through the night, with the first episode being shortest, of approximately 10—12 minutes duration, and the second and third episodes increasing to 15—20 minutes.
Dreams at the end of the night may last as long as 15 minutes, although these may be experienced as several distinct episodes due to momentary arousals interrupting sleep as the night ends.
The increase in the ability to recall dreams appears related to intensification across the night in the vividness of dream imagery, colors, and emotions.
REM sleep and the ability to dream seem to be embedded in the biology of many animals in addition to humans. Scientific research suggests that all mammals experience REM.
Studies have observed signs of dreaming in all mammals studied, including monkeys, dogs, cats, rats, elephants, and shrews.
There have also been signs of dreaming in birds and reptiles. Scientific research results regarding the function of dreaming in animals remain disputable; however, the function of sleeping in living organisms is increasingly clear.
For example, sleep deprivation experiments conducted on rats and other animals have resulted in the deterioration of physiological functioning and actual tissue damage.
Some scientists argue that humans dream for the same reason other amniotes do. From a Darwinian perspective dreams would have to fulfill some kind of biological requirement, provide some benefit for natural selection to take place, or at least have no negative impact on fitness.
In Antti Revonsuo, a professor at the University of Turku in Finland, claimed that centuries ago dreams would prepare humans for recognizing and avoiding danger by presenting a simulation of threatening events.
The theory has therefore been called the threat-simulation theory. Many hypotheses have been proposed as to what function dreams perform, some of which have been contradicted by later empirical studies.
It has also been proposed that dreams serve no particular purpose, and that they are simply a byproduct of biochemical processes that only occur in the brain during sleep.
In the late 19th century, psychotherapist Sigmund Freud developed a theory since discredited that the content of dreams is driven by unconscious wish fulfillment.
Freud called dreams the " royal road to the unconscious. He argued that important unconscious desires often relate to early childhood memories and experiences.
Latent content relates to deep unconscious wishes or fantasies while manifest content is superficial and meaningless.
In his early work, Freud argued that the vast majority of latent dream content is sexual in nature, but he later moved away from this categorical position.
In Beyond the Pleasure Principle he considered how trauma or aggression could influence dream content. He also discussed supernatural origins in Dreams and Occultism , a lecture published in New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis.
Late in life Freud acknowledged that "It is impossible to classify as wish fulfillments" the repetitive nightmares associated with post-traumatic stress disorder.
His theory that dreams were the "guardians" of sleep, repressing and disguising bodily urges to ensure sleep continues, seems unlikely given studies of individuals who can sleep without dreaming.
His assertions that repressed memory in infants re-surface decades later in adult dreams conflicts with modern research on memory. On the plus side, modern researchers agree with Freud that dreams do have coherence, and that dream content connects to other psychological variables and often connect to recent waking thoughts though not as often as Freud supposed.
He described dreams as messages to the dreamer and argued that dreamers should pay attention for their own good. He came to believe that dreams present the dreamer with revelations that can uncover and help to resolve emotional or religious problems and fears.
Jung wrote that recurring dreams show up repeatedly to demand attention, suggesting that the dreamer is neglecting an issue related to the dream.
He called this "compensation. Jung did not believe that the conscious attitude was wrong and that the dream provided the true belief. He argued that good work with dreams takes both into account and comes up with a balanced viewpoint.
He believed that many of the symbols or images from these dreams return with each dream. Jung believed that memories formed throughout the day also play a role in dreaming.
These memories leave impressions for the unconscious to deal with when the ego is at rest. The unconscious mind re-enacts these glimpses of the past in the form of a dream.
Jung called this a day residue. Fritz Perls presented his theory of dreams as part of the holistic nature of Gestalt therapy.
Dreams are seen as projections of parts of the self that have been ignored, rejected, or suppressed. Perls expanded this point of view to say that even inanimate objects in the dream may represent aspects of the dreamer.
Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley proposed a new theory that changed dream research, challenging the previously held Freudian view of dreams as unconscious wishes to be interpreted.
They assume that the same structures that induce REM sleep also generate sensory information. According to Hobson and other researchers, circuits in the brainstem are activated during REM sleep.
Once these circuits are activated, areas of the limbic system involved in emotions, sensations, and memories, including the amygdala and hippocampus, become active.
The brain synthesizes and interprets these activities; for example, changes in the physical environment such as temperature and humidity, or physical stimuli such as ejaculation, and attempts to create meaning from these signals, result in dreaming.
However, research by Mark Solms suggests that dreams are generated in the forebrain , and that REM sleep and dreaming are not directly related.
However, Solms did not encounter cases of loss of dreaming with patients having brainstem damage. Zhang hypothesizes that the function of sleep is to process, encode, and transfer the data from the temporary memory store to the long-term memory store.
During NREM sleep the conscious-related memory declarative memory is processed, and during REM sleep the unconscious related memory procedural memory is processed.
Zhang assumes that during REM sleep the unconscious part of a brain is busy processing the procedural memory; meanwhile, the level of activation in the conscious part of the brain descends to a very low level as the inputs from the sensory systems are basically disconnected.
This triggers the "continual-activation" mechanism to generate a data stream from the memory stores to flow through the conscious part of the brain.
Zhang suggests that this pulse-like brain activation is the inducer of each dream. This explains why dreams have both characteristics of continuity within a dream and sudden changes between two dreams.
According to Tsoukalas REM sleep is an evolutionary transformation of a well-known defensive mechanism, the tonic immobility reflex. This reflex, also known as animal hypnosis or death feigning, functions as the last line of defense against an attacking predator and consists of the total immobilization of the animal: Tsoukalas claims that the neurophysiology and phenomenology of this reaction shows striking similarities to REM sleep, a fact that suggests a deep evolutionary kinship.
For example, both reactions exhibit brainstem control, paralysis, hippocampal theta and thermoregulatory changes. Tsoukalas claims that this theory integrates many earlier findings into a unified framework.
Eugen Tarnow suggests that dreams are ever-present excitations of long-term memory , even during waking life. During waking life an executive function interprets long-term memory consistent with reality checking.
A study showed evidence that illogical locations, characters, and dream flow may help the brain strengthen the linking and consolidation of semantic memories.
Increasing levels of the stress hormone cortisol late in sleep often during REM sleep causes this decreased communication. One stage of memory consolidation is the linking of distant but related memories.
Payne and Nadal hypothesize these memories are then consolidated into a smooth narrative, similar to a process that happens when memories are created under stress.
By the dream work, incomplete material is either removed suppressed or deepened and included into memory. Hughlings Jackson viewed that sleep serves to sweep away unnecessary memories and connections from the day.
During the accommodation phase, mental schemas self-modify by incorporating dream themes. During the emotional selection phase, dreams test prior schema accommodations.
Those that appear adaptive are retained, while those that appear maladaptive are culled. Alfred Adler suggested that dreams are often emotional preparations for solving problems, intoxicating an individual away from common sense toward private logic.
The residual dream feelings may either reinforce or inhibit contemplated action. Numerous theories state that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural purpose.
Hobson, for different reasons, also considers dreams epiphenomena. He believes that the substance of dreams have no significant influence on waking actions, and most people go about their daily lives perfectly well without remembering their dreams.
The activation-synthesis theory hypothesizes that the peculiar nature of dreams is attributed to certain parts of the brain trying to piece together a story out of what is essentially bizarre information.
Some evolutionary psychologists believe dreams serve some adaptive function for survival. Deirdre Barrett describes dreaming as simply "thinking in different biochemical state" and believes people continue to work on all the same problems—personal and objective—in that state.
Finnish psychologist Antti Revonsuo posits that dreams have evolved for "threat simulation" exclusively. According to the Threat Simulation Theory he proposes, during much of human evolution physical and interpersonal threats were serious, giving reproductive advantage to those who survived them.
Therefore, dreaming evolved to replicate these threats and continually practice dealing with them. In support of this theory, Revonsuo shows that contemporary dreams comprise much more threatening events than people meet in daily non-dream life, and the dreamer usually engages appropriately with them.
According to Tsoukalas the biology of dreaming is related to the reactive patterns elicited by predatorial encounters especially the tonic immobility reflex , a fact that lends support to evolutionary theories claiming that dreams specialize in threat avoidance or emotional processing.
There are many other hypotheses about the function of dreams, including: From the s to , Calvin S. Hall collected more than 50, dream reports at Western Reserve University.
In Hall and Van De Castle published The Content Analysis of Dreams , in which they outlined a coding system to study 1, dream reports from college students.
The visual nature of dreams is generally highly phantasmagoric; that is, different locations and objects continuously blend into each other. Some dreams may even tell elaborate stories wherein the dreamer enters entirely new, complex worlds and awakes with ideas, thoughts and feelings never experienced prior to the dream.
People who are blind from birth do not have visual dreams. Their dream contents are related to other senses like auditory , touch , smell and taste , whichever are present since birth.
In the Hall study, the most common emotion experienced in dreams was anxiety. Other emotions included abandonment , anger , fear , joy , and happiness.
Negative emotions were much more common than positive ones. These are colloquially known as wet dreams. A small minority of people say that they dream only in black and white.
There is evidence that certain medical conditions normally only neurological conditions can impact dreams. For instance, some people with synesthesia have never reported entirely black-and-white dreaming, and often have a difficult time imagining the idea of dreaming in only black and white.
Dream interpretation can be a result of subjective ideas and experiences. One study  found that most people believe that "their dreams reveal meaningful hidden truths".
This Freudian view of dreaming was believed by the largely non-scientific public significantly more than theories of dreaming that attribute dream content to memory consolidation, problem-solving, or random brain activity.
In the paper, Morewedge and Norton also found that people attribute more importance to dream content than to similar thought content that occurs while they are awake.
In one study, Americans were more likely to report that they would miss their flight if they dreamt of their plane crashing than if they thought of their plane crashing the night before flying while awake , and that they would be as likely to miss their flight if they dreamt of their plane crashing the night before their flight as if there was an actual plane crash on the route they intended to take.
Participants in their studies were more likely to perceive dreams to be meaningful when the content of dreams was in accordance with their beliefs and desires while awake.
People were more likely to view a positive dream about a friend to be meaningful than a positive dream about someone they disliked, for example, and were more likely to view a negative dream about a person they disliked as meaningful than a negative dream about a person they liked.
Therapy for recurring nightmares often associated with posttraumatic stress disorder can include imagining alternative scenarios that could begin at each step of the dream.
During the night, many external stimuli may bombard the senses, but the brain often interprets the stimulus and makes it a part of a dream to ensure continued sleep.
The mind can, however, awaken an individual if they are in danger or if trained to respond to certain sounds, such as a baby crying. The term "dream incorporation" is also used in research examining the degree to which preceding daytime events become elements of dreams.
Recent studies suggest that events in the day immediately preceding, and those about a week before, have the most influence.
According to surveys, it is common for people to feel their dreams are predicting subsequent life events. In one experiment, subjects were asked to write down their dreams in a diary.
This prevented the selective memory effect, and the dreams no longer seemed accurate about the future. When subjects were asked to recall the dreams they had read, they remembered more of the successful predictions than unsuccessful ones.
In this state the dreamer may often have some degree of control over their own actions within the dream or even the characters and the environment of the dream.
Dream control has been reported to improve with practiced deliberate lucid dreaming, but the ability to control aspects of the dream is not necessary for a dream to qualify as "lucid" — a lucid dream is any dream during which the dreamer knows they are dreaming.
Oneironaut is a term sometimes used for those who lucidly dream. In , psychologist Keith Hearne successfully recorded a communication from a dreamer experiencing a lucid dream.
Communication between two dreamers has also been documented. The processes involved included EEG monitoring, ocular signaling, incorporation of reality in the form of red light stimuli and a coordinating website.
The website tracked when both dreamers were dreaming and sent the stimulus to one of the dreamers where it was incorporated into the dream.
This dreamer, upon becoming lucid, signaled with eye movements; this was detected by the website whereupon the stimulus was sent to the second dreamer, invoking incorporation into this dream.
Dreams of absent-minded transgression DAMT are dreams wherein the dreamer absentmindedly performs an action that he or she has been trying to stop one classic example is of a quitting smoker having dreams of lighting a cigarette.
Subjects who have had DAMT have reported waking with intense feelings of guilt. One study found a positive association between having these dreams and successfully stopping the behavior.
The recollection of dreams is extremely unreliable, though it is a skill that can be trained. Dreams can usually be recalled if a person is awakened while dreaming.
Often, a dream may be recalled upon viewing or hearing a random trigger or stimulus. The salience hypothesis proposes that dream content that is salient, that is, novel, intense, or unusual, is more easily remembered.
There is considerable evidence that vivid, intense, or unusual dream content is more frequently recalled. However they are usually too slight and fleeting to allow dream recall.
Certain brain chemicals necessary for converting short-term memories into long-term ones are suppressed during REM sleep.
Unless a dream is particularly vivid and if one wakes during or immediately after it, the content of the dream is not remembered.
Using technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI and electromyography EMG , researchers have been able to record basic dream imagery,  dream speech activity  and dream motor behavior such as walking and hand movements.
In line with the salience hypothesis, there is considerable evidence that people who have more vivid, intense or unusual dreams show better recall.
There is evidence that continuity of consciousness is related to recall. Specifically, people who have vivid and unusual experiences during the day tend to have more memorable dream content and hence better dream recall.
People who score high on measures of personality traits associated with creativity, imagination, and fantasy, such as openness to experience , daydreaming , fantasy proneness , absorption , and hypnotic susceptibility , tend to show more frequent dream recall.
That is, people who report more bizarre experiences during the day, such as people high in schizotypy psychosis proneness have more frequent dream recall and also report more frequent nightmares.
A daydream is a visionary fantasy , especially one of happy, pleasant thoughts, hopes or ambitions, imagined as coming to pass, and experienced while awake.
Research by Harvard psychologist Deirdre Barrett has found that people who experience vivid dream-like mental images reserve the word for these, whereas many other people refer to milder imagery, realistic future planning, review of past memories or just "spacing out"—i.
While daydreaming has long been derided as a lazy, non-productive pastime, it is now commonly acknowledged that daydreaming can be constructive in some contexts.
Similarly, research scientists , mathematicians and physicists have developed new ideas by daydreaming about their subject areas.
A hallucination, in the broadest sense of the word, is a perception in the absence of a stimulus. In a stricter sense, hallucinations are perceptions in a conscious and awake state, in the absence of external stimuli, and have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space.
The latter definition distinguishes hallucinations from the related phenomena of dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness.
A nightmare is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong negative emotional response from the mind, typically fear or horror , but also despair , anxiety and great sadness.
The dream may contain situations of danger, discomfort, psychological or physical terror. Sufferers usually awaken in a state of distress and may be unable to return to sleep for a prolonged period of time.
A night terror, also known as a sleep terror or pavor nocturnus , is a parasomnia disorder that predominantly affects children, causing feelings of terror or dread.
Night terrors should not be confused with nightmares , which are bad dreams that cause the feeling of horror or fear.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Dream disambiguation. Dream world plot device. Rapid eye movement sleep.
Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. This article is missing information about scientific consensus about these theories.
Retrieved May 7, Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. Sleep and dreaming 3rd ed. Stages of Sleep " ". Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved August 11, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.
The motivated interpretation of dreams". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. The Interpretation of Dreams.
The Dream Dictionary from A to Z. Archived from the original on February 2, The scientific study of dreams. Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: University of Texas Press.
Logical and Philosophical Problems of the Dream. The dream in primitive cultures London: Anthropological approaches to the study of dreaming In other cultures.
A call to mental arms. Dreams, culture and the individual. Archived from the original on A letter that has not been read: Dreams in the Hebrew Bible.
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