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As seen with the case of excessive fluoride intakes below, the result can be irreversible staining to the teeth. Although this may be a minor toxic effect to health, there are several that are more severe.
The WHO states that limitations to food fortification may include: Food safety worries led to legislation in Denmark in restricting foods fortified with extra vitamins or minerals.
One factor that limits the benefits of food fortification is that isolated nutrients added back into a processed food that has had many of its nutrients removed, does not always result in the added nutrients being as bioavailable as they would be in the original, whole food.
An example is skim milk that has had the fat removed, and then had vitamin A and vitamin D added back.
Vitamins A and D are both fat-soluble and non-water-soluble, so a person consuming skim milk in the absence of fats may not be able to absorb as much of these vitamins as one would be able to absorb from drinking whole milk.
On the other hand, the nutrient added as a fortificant may have a higher bioavailability than from foods, which is the case with folic acid used to increase folate intakes.
Phytochemicals such as phytic acid in cereal grains can also impact nutrient absorption, limiting the bioavailability of intrinsic and additional nutrients, and reducing the effectiveness of fortification programs.
Ecological studies have shown that increased B vitamin fortification is correlated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes.
Fortification of foods with folic acid has been mandated in many countries solely to improve the folate status of pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects —a birth defect which affected 0.
High blood concentrations of folic acid may decrease natural killer cell cytotoxicity, and high folate status may reduce the response to drugs used to treat malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer.
There is a concern that micronutrients are legally defined in such a way that does not distinguish between different forms, and that fortified foods often have nutrients in a balance that would not occur naturally.
For example, in the U. In some cases, certain forms of micronutrients can be actively toxic in a sufficiently high dose, even if other forms are safe at the same or much higher doses.
There are examples of such toxicity in both synthetic and naturally-occurring forms of vitamins. Retinol , the active form of Vitamin A, is toxic in a much lower dose than other forms, such as beta carotene.
Menadione , a phased-out synthetic form of Vitamin K , is also known to be toxic. Many foods and beverages worldwide have been fortified, whether a voluntary action by the product developers or by law.
Although some may view these additions as strategic marketing schemes to sell their product, there is a lot of work that must go into a product before simply fortifying it.
In order to fortify a product, it must first be proven that the addition of this vitamin or mineral is beneficial to health, safe, and an effective method of delivery.
The addition must also abide by all food and labeling regulations and support nutritional rationale. Examples of foods and beverages that have been fortified and shown to have positive health effects:.
Severe deficiencies cause cretinism , stillbirth and miscarriage. But even mild deficiency can significantly affect the learning ability of populations.
It was discovered in that goiters could be treated by the use of iodized salts. However, it was not until that the use of iodized salts could be tested in a research trial as a preventative measure against goiters.
By , it became readily available in the US. Diseases that are associated with an iodine deficiency include: There is also a risk of various other growth and developmental abnormalities.
Folate as a fortification ingredient, folic acid functions in reducing blood homocysteine levels, forming red blood cells, proper growth and division of cells and preventing neural tube defects NTDs.
Two common types of NTDs, spina bifida and anencephaly , affect approximately infants born in the US annually. Niacin has been added to bread in the US since when voluntary addition started , a program which substantially reduced the incidence of pellagra.
Although corn itself does contain niacin, it is not a bioavailable form unless it undergoes nixtamalization treatment with alkali, traditional in Native American cultures and therefore was not contributing to the overall intake of niacin.
Diseases associated with niacin deficiency include: Since Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin , it cannot be added to a wide variety of foods.
Foods that it is commonly added to are margarine, vegetable oils and dairy products. Their results showed that sunlight exposure and cod liver oil were the cure.
It was not until the s that vitamin D was actually linked to curing rickets. Diseases associated with a vitamin D deficiency include rickets , osteoporosis , and certain types of cancer breast, prostate, colon and ovaries.
It has also been associated with increased risks for fractures, heart disease , type 2 diabetes , autoimmune and infectious diseases, asthma and other wheezing disorders, myocardial infarction , hypertension , congestive heart failure , and peripheral vascular disease.
Although fluoride is not considered an essential mineral, it is useful in prevention of tooth decay and maintaining adequate dental health.
This led to the fortification of water supplies with fluoride in safe amounts or reduction of naturally-occurring levels to retain the properties of resistance to dental caries but avoid the staining cause by fluorosis a condition caused by excessive fluoride intake.
Even though other preservation methods now exist, fortification continues to be used because the process can add distinct flavors to the finished product.
Although grape brandy is most commonly added to produce fortified wines, the additional alcohol may also be neutral spirit that has been made from grapes, grain, sugar beets or sugarcane.
Regional appellation laws may dictate the types of spirit that are permitted for fortification. For example, in the U. The source of the additional alcohol and the method of its distillation can affect the flavour of the fortified wine.
If neutral spirit is used, it will usually have been produced with a continuous still , rather than a pot still. When added to wine before the fermentation process is complete, the alcohol in the distilled beverage kills the yeast and leaves residual sugar behind.
At this level, the alcohol becomes toxic to the yeast and kills it. If fermentation is allowed to run to completion, the resulting wine will in most cases be low in sugar and will be considered a dry wine.
The earlier in the fermentation process that alcohol is added, the sweeter the resulting wine will be. For drier fortified wine styles, such as sherry , the alcohol is added shortly before or after the end of the fermentation.
In the case of some fortified wine styles such as late harvest and botrytized wines , a naturally high level of sugar will inhibit the yeast.
This causes fermentation to stop before the wine can become dry. Recent developments have produced different styles of Commandaria, some of which are not fortified.
Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Madeira Islands. The wine is produced in a variety of styles ranging from dry wines which can be consumed on their own as an aperitif , to sweet wines more usually consumed with dessert.
Madeira is deliberately heated and oxidised as part of its maturation process, resulting in distinctive flavours and an unusually long lifespan once a bottle is opened.
Marsala wine is a wine from Sicily that is available in both fortified and unfortified versions. The wine is made primarily from the Muscat of Alexandria grape and typically fortified with aguardente.
Port wine also known simply as Port is a fortified wine from the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal.
Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the town of Jerez , Spain. The word "sherry" itself is an anglicisation of Jerez.
In earlier times, sherry was known as sack from the Spanish saca , meaning "a removal from the solera ".
After fermentation is complete, sherry is fortified with brandy. Because the fortification takes place after fermentation, most sherries are initially dry, with any sweetness being added later.
In contrast, port wine for example is fortified halfway through its fermentation, which stops the process so that not all of the sugar is turned into alcohol.
Sherry is produced in a variety of styles, ranging from dry, light versions such as finos to much darker and sometimes sweeter versions known as olorosos.
Vermouth is a fortified wine flavoured with aromatic herbs and spices "aromatised" in the trade using closely guarded recipes trade secrets. Some of the herbs and spices used may include cardamom , cinnamon , marjoram and chamomile.
The person credited with the second vermouth recipe, Antonio Benedetto Carpano from Turin , Italy , chose to name his concoction "vermouth" in because he was inspired by a German wine flavoured with wormwood , an herb most famously used in distilling absinthe.
However, wine flavoured with wormwood goes back to ancient Rome. The herbs were originally used to mask raw flavours of cheaper wines,  imparting a slightly medicinal "tonic" flavor.
Vins doux naturels are lightly fortified wines typically made from white Muscat grapes or red Grenache grapes in the south of France. The production of vins doux naturels was perfected by Arnaud de Villeneuve at the University of Montpellier in the 13th century and they are now quite common in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France.
Inexpensive fortified wines, such as Thunderbird and Wild Irish Rose, became popular during the Great Depression for their relatively high alcohol content.
The term wino was coined during this period to describe impoverished people who drank these wines solely for their inebriating effect.Dann entstanden Bewässerungssysteme und um v. Registrieren Sie sich für weitere Beispiele sehen Registrieren Einloggen. The Lockwood house was heavily fortified. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch fortified place. The km-long border around West Berlin was, in part, made up of a ca. Weitere Übersetzungen im bab. Nach dem ausgiebigen Mahl fühlte ich mich gestärkt Denke ich habe so was bei Wodehouse geles…. Allgemein to fortify auch: Auch sollte beim Konsumenten nicht der Eindruck entstehen, dass Lebensmittel, denen Vitamine, Mineralstoffe oder andere Substanzen zum Zecke der Anreicherung zugesetzt werden , generell höherwertiger einzustufen sind als nicht angereicherte. Der Eintrag wurde Ihren Favoriten hinzugefügt.